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Dynasties Cham

The reconstruction of the chronology cham was done by G. Maspero, G. Coed, from the annals of Chinese and Vietnamese as well as stone inscriptions in Sanskrit found in the territory or Cham in Cambodia. It currently has more gaps.

a. Kingdom of Linyi
Mentioned by Chinese sources from 280, the kingdom, located in Thua Thien-Quang Nam and then in, was founded about 192 and lasted until 750-758 with seems to be two dynasties (the second taking power to 530). Its capital was probably at Tra Kieu (?).
The first ruler whose Oïl known inscriptions in Sanskrit and the name, Bhavavarman reigned around 400 and established the first sanctuary site dedicated to Siva So'n My Bhadreçvara.

b. Huan-Xang kingdom
Opened in 758, the dynasty died out between 854 and 877.
His domain is in Phang Rang (Pandurang) Nha Trang and (Kauthara). The capital was Vîrapura (north of Phan Rang). With this new dynasty is the use of posthumous names of the kings in Cambodia.
The sanctuary of Po Nagar in Nha Trang built by a legendary king, Vichitrasagara, was destroyed by an invasion in 774 Javanese, the new, brick, was inaugurated by King Satyavarman / Icvaraloka in 784. He received from other foundations. 813 and 817 by the military leader Senapati Para.

c. Kingdom of Chan-ch'eng or Champapûra
From the middle of the ninth century to 1471, the kingdom experienced the vicissitudes and two capitals: Indra Para, Tra Kieu in Quang Nam, then from the year 1000, Vijaya in Binh Dinh.
The first ruler of Indra pura, Indravarman II is the founder of the whole Buddhist Dong Du 'o' ng dedicated to Lakshmîndralokeçvara.
Around 950, sacked the Khmer sanctuary of Po Nagar in Nha Trang and steal the gold statue that had been installed in 918 by King Indravarman It A stone statue will replace it during the restoration of the sanctuary-in 965 by the King Jaya-Indravarman on 1.
The first serious clashes with the Co Dai Viet began in 979. The capital will be plundered by them in 982 and finally abandoned by Yang Pu Ku Vijaya Scream in 1000.
The eleventh century was marked by constant struggles with Dai Co Viet who has been granted the three provinces in the north (corresponding to the Quang Binh and Quang Tri in) in 1069 and is beginning to receive a tribute (more or less regularly paid ) Cham kings.
During the twelfth century, the Chams are caught between Dai Viet and Khmer. In 1145, the capital was sacked by the Khmer ruler Suryavarman II and the country will be held until 1149. But Indravarman Jaya IV, who had usurped power in 1167, attacked and occupied Cambodia in 1177. It follows a reaction Khmer from 1190 leading to the annexation of Champa in Cambodia between 1203 and 1220.
Cham power restored by Java Parameçvaravarman II in 1226, conflict resumed with the Dai Viet plus the demands of the new rulers of China, the Mongols (the capital was sacked by them in the year 1285).
Finally, in the fourteenth century, except during the reign of Che Bong Nga (Binasuor) between 1360 and 1400 during which the Champa knows a last moment of glory, the country is virtually a vassal of the Dai Co Viet, which definitely takes the capital in 1471 and unified the territory under its authority.

MC. D.

Article of "La Lettre de la SACHA" n°2, décember 1997, page 13.

© 2008 Sacha Champa. All rights reserved.
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